Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Cechoslovaca

Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Cechoslovaca

Původní práce / Original papers

ACTA CHIRURGIAE ORTHOPAEDICAE ET TRAUMATOLOGIAE ČECHOSL.,
86, 2019, p. 330 - 333

Studie vlivu pohlaví a věku na zlomeniny proximálního femuru ve dvou kulturně rozdílných státech

Study on the Effects of Sex and Age on Proximal Femoral Fractures in Two Culturally Diverse Countries

L. ZELENKA1, I. KNÍŽKOVÁ2, D. LUKEŠOVÁ3, P. KUNC2
1 Klinika ortopedie 1. lékařské fakulty Univerzity Karlovy a Ústřední vojenské nemocnice, Praha
2 Výzkumných ústav živočišné výroby, v.v.i., Praha-Uhříněves
3 Katedra chovu zvířat a potravinářství v tropech, Fakulta tropického zemědělství, Česká zemědělská univerzita v Praze

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The pilot study deals with the current situation in proximal femoral fractures in culturally diverse regions, namely in Afghanistan (AFG) and in the Czech Republic (CZ). The study aimed to find out whether there are any differences in proximal femoral fractures in dependence on the selected criteria between the two culturally diverse areas. The study used the data of patients who underwent surgery for proximal femoral fracture at the Department of Orthopaedics of the 1st Medical Faculty of the Charles University and the Military University Hospital and at the Military Base Hospital Kabul.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The study included patients aged 21 years or older who sustained a proximal femoral fracture in the period from October 2013 to February 2014. For the period concerned, the evaluation comprised 44 patients with a proximal femoral fracture from the Military Base Hospital Kabul, of whom 25 women and 19 men, and a total of 71 patients with a proximal femoral fracture from the Department of Orthopaedics of the 1 st Medical Faculty of the Charles University and the Military University Hospital, of whom 43 women and 28 men. Based on the medical documentation, the following evaluation parameters were selected: age, sex, type of fracture. The data was processed using descriptive statistics, one-way and multifactorial analysis (ANOVA) and the POST-HOC test (Fisher LSD test, confidence interval = 95%)

RESULTS

The mean age of all the patients who suffered a fracture of proximal femur in AFG (58 years) was considerably lower (p < 0.001) than in patients in CZ (81 years). Similarly, a significant difference (p <0.001) was identified in the age of men and women treated for a proximal femoral fracture in both the countries. In AFG there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.002) between the age of men and women, where women sustaining fractures were younger (54 years) compared to men (63 years). In CZ no significant age difference was reported (83 years vs 78 years). In AFG, the observed fractures occurred generally in their 6th and 7th decade, whereas in CZ only in their 9th decade. The incidence of proximal femoral fractures in Afghan women is the highest in their 5th and 6th decade. Pertrochanteric fractures and intracapsular fractures prevailed in both countries. The lowest age in both types of the fracture was reported in Afghan women (52 years in femoral neck fracture, p <0.001, 54 years in trochanteric fracture, p = 0.039).

DISCUSSION

Significant differences between the patients in AFG and CZ concern several factors. Afghanistan is a country with the lowest average life expectancy. In the Afghan population a major Vitamin D deficiency was confirmed. This is related to the conservative dress code, especially in women, when the Vitamin D synthesis is suppressed. That can cause the occurrence of osteoporosis in women at a considerably younger age than in the population in the Czech Republic, which is subsequently accompanied by an increased incidence of proximal femoral fractures. Similar results, however, were also obtained in men. One of the risk factors of osteoporosis development is also low physical activity throughout the lifetime. This risk factor is significant primarily in female population in the Muslim world. Afghanistan also faces serious malnutrition. All of that is reflected in low life expectancy in the given country, incidence of osteoporosis and injuries in this region. There is reasonable evidence that the mortality in a causal relationship with proximal femoral fracture is substantially higher in this region than in Western Europe.

CONCLUSIONS

The results of the pilot study showed that there are significant differences in age and frequency of fractures in dependence on sex and country. The obtained results can be considered valuable since there are virtually no scientific or professional studies on osteoporosis and fractures in the given area that would help physicians get ready for significant differences. These results may become a source of valuable information not only for medical practitioners coming to Afghanistan to help as volunteers in the framework of developmental assistance from all over the world, but also for physicians from Europe, with respect to the wave of migrants coming from this area.

Key words: proximal femur, fracture, gender, age, Afghanistan, Czech Republic

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