Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Cechoslovaca

Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Cechoslovaca

Původní práce / Original papers

ACTA CHIRURGIAE ORTHOPAEDICAE ET TRAUMATOLOGIAE ČECHOSL.,
85, 2018, p. 40 - 45

Epidemiologická studie vlivu pohlaví, věku, mobility a doby úrazu na zlomeniny proximálního femuru

Epidemiological Study of the Effects of Gender, Age, Mobility and Time of Injury on Proximal Femoral Fractures

L. ZELENKA1,2, J. ALT1, I. KNÍŽKOVÁ3, P. KUNC3, D. LUKEŠOVÁ2
1 Klinika ortopedie 1. lékařské fakulty Univerzity Karlovy a Ústřední vojenské nemocnice - Vojenské fakultní nemocnice Praha
2 Katedra chovu zvířat a potravinářství v tropech, FTZ, Česká zemědělská univerzita v Praze
3 Výzkumných ústav živočišné výroby, v. v. i., Praha-Uhříněves

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF STUDY

Based on the selected criteria the study presents the evaluation of data of patients who underwent a surgery for proximal femoral fracture at the Department of Orthopaedic Trauma of the 1st Faculty of Medicine and Military University Hospital Prague in the period 2013-2016. The paper aimed to determine whether there are any differences in proximal femoral fractures depending on the selected criteria.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The study comprised 805 patients (562 women and 243 men) older than 21 years with proximal femoral fractures who were treated between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2016. In the study, the patient s data on gender, age, a type of fracture (according to the AO classification), a level of mobility, time of injury and month of injury were analysed. The data was evaluated using the methods of descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance, two-way analysis by ANOVA and by following select POST-HOC test (Fisher LSD test) were utilized, 95% confidence interval was selected.

RESULTS

In the group of treated patients, the men were outnumbered by women (70% vs. 30%). In women the fractures occurred at a significantly (p < 0.001) older age (82 years) compared to men (77 years). Until the 8th decade the fractures in men dominated, while from the 9th decade the fractures were more frequent in women. A sharp increase in the number of fractures in women was reported exactly in the 9th decade (56% of the total number of fractures in women). The group of women showed a significant difference (p = 0.027) between the age of femoral neck fractures and the age of trochanteric femoral fractures (80 years vs. 84 years). In both genders intracapsular and pertrochanteric fractures prevailed.

In women and men with a limited mobility, fractures were sustained at the highest mean age (85 years in women, 84 years in men) compared to the other levels of mobility. In mobile patients, a significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between the age of women and men at which the fracture was sustained (79 years vs. 71 years). The largest significant difference (p < 0.001) in the age of fracture is seen in night time (84 years in women, 71 years in men). The highest number of injuries was suffered in the months of October to January, whereas the lowest number was reported in the period from June to July.

DISCUSSION

The epidemiological studies underline a notably higher incidence of proximal femoral fractures in women than in men, which was also confirmed by our study. The mean age of women with proximal femoral fracture was significantly higher compared to men. Similar conclusions have been drawn also by other studies. The incidence of fractures in dependence on the age group was the highest in women and men in their 9th decade, which compared to the previous studies was at a later age. This finding can be justified by aging of the Czech population, with the growing number of persons in the 9th decade age group between 2012 and 2017 by 40,000. Nonetheless, men prevailed in fractures until the 9th decade, while from the 9th decade there is a marked growth in the number of these fractures sustained by women. This corresponds with the findings of other authors. As to the individual types of fractures (neck, trochanteric fracture) no difference was revealed in the percentage of women and men. In both genders intracapsular and petrochanteric fractures prevailed. Neither the level of pre-fracture mobility, nor the time of injury have been sufficiently monitored and evaluated with regard to the age of patients, therefore there is no adequate data to compare our results with. The lowest mean age at the time of injury was achieved by fully mobile men (71 years), which can be attributable to their sports and social activities performed at this age. The highest number of proximal femoral fractures was reported in the period from October to January, whereas their lowest number was reported in the period from June to July, which corresponds with the majority of other conducted studies in this area of research.

CONCLUSIONS

A considerably higher incidence of proximal femoral fractures in women was confirmed. The mean age of women with proximal femoral fracture was significantly higher than in men (82 vs. 77 years). Men prevailed in the number of fractures up to the 9th decade, whereas from the 9th decade the number of proximal femoral fractures in women significantly grew. In individual types of fractures (neck, trochanteric fractures), no difference in percentage of women and men was found. In both the genders intracapsular and pertrochanteric fractures significantly prevailed. The lowest mean age (71 years) at the time of injury was achieved by fully mobile men. The same age was identified in men also with respect to injuries sustained at night. The highest number of proximal femoral fractures was reported in the period from October to January, the lowest in the period from June to July. The knowledge of these seasonal variations can help plan the health care in the medical facility concerned.

Key words: proximal femur, fracture, gender, mobility, day-time, seasonally

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